Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Bhutan
Bhutan is a Himalayan landlocked country with a total area of 47,000 km2. For administrative purposes, it is divided into 20 dzongkhag (districts). The country is almost entirely mountainous, with flat land limited to the broader river valleys and along the foothills bordering the Indian subcontinent. Altitudes range from 7,500 meters (m) at the summit of Kula Kangri on the northern border to about 200 m at the Indian border in the south. Bhutan has three major landform features: the southern foothills, the inner Himalayas and the higher Himalayas.
Nearly every valley in Bhutan has a swiftly flowing river or stream, fed either by the perennial snows, the summer monsoon or both.
Except for a small river in the extreme north of the country which flows north, all rivers flow south to India. The river basins are oriented north-south and are, from west to east, the Jadalkha, Torsa, Raidak, Sankosh, Mao Khola/Aie, Manas and eastern river basins, this last basin being composed of the Bada and Dhansiri rivers. Only the Torsa River has its primary source outside Bhutan, in India. Although it has not been measured, this inflow is negligible in comparison to the internal renewable water resources which are estimated at 95 km3/year. Because of the mountainous character of the country, the groundwater resources in Bhutan are probably limited and are drained by the surface water network. They cannot in any case be considered as an additional resource.
Lakes and dams
The only dam in the country is the Chukha hydropower dam. Some dams could be constructed in the near future for hydropower purposes. There is no wastewater treatment in Bhutan, but two wastewater collection and treatment projects are being implemented in the cities of Thimphu and Phuntsoling.
The total water withdrawal was estimated at 20 million m3 in 1987 (Figure 1), which is a minimal fraction of the resources (0.02%).
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Bhutan’s water resources.
Bhutan’s main water resources are:
- Surface water “is water from river, rain water, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
- Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
- Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Bhutan: