Chloride is a naturally occurring anion that is found in surface and groundwater sources like well, surface/ground water, sea water, and also found in rainwater and tap water as well. It is often associated with salts such as potassium chloride and sodium chloride and is also known to be associated with total dissolved solids (TDS). In chemical treatment processes, chloride is usually included in the chemical agents that inevitably increase the levels of chloride. There are many sources from which chloride can result in water in addition to its natural disposition in ground and surface water. Sources of chloride vary from salt containing rocks, agricultural runoff, to wastewater from different industries.
However, increased levels of chloride relate to increased levels of TDS which then require treatment to prevent the negative effects and reduce the overall amounts. Some negative effects of chloride include contamination and health risks; high chloride and salt concentrations impede plant growth which is essential for industries like agriculture when the water is used for irrigation. Chloride also impacts the overall quality of the products by means of taste and can cause corrosion with metal by allowing toxic metals to trickle into the water. All these issues can be tackled by a water treatment system like a Reverse Osmosis System, a distiller, or an Ion-exchange filter.
Recommended Treatment Systems:
Reverse Osmosis System:
Reverse Osmosis is the one process that can reduce the most amounts of dissolved solids (TDS) and salts including chloride in water. The process of Reverse Osmosis Systems consists of pressurizing water through a semi-permeable membrane for high quality water. As high pressure is applied on the feed water, the finely pored filter captures all major contaminants and only allowing water molecules to pass through. The permeate water from this water treatment system contains about 90-95% less TDS and salt particles; making it one of the cleanest and highest quality forms of water. Water produced by a reverse osmosis system contains the lowest amounts of PPM for as low as 10 PPM. For seawater, Reverse Osmosis would be the most effective solution to combat the concentration of chloride from the salty water.
Distillers are another form of water treatment that use air and heat to get rid of contaminants and bacteria in the water. The heat is used in a boiling process to kill microorganisms of all types. This form of water treatment is more expensive than a Reverse Osmosis system due to the process requiring electricity to generate heat.
Ion exchange filters consist of resin beads that are chemically charged to exchange ions with salts containing chloride. This solution particularly removes chloride by the process of absorption onto the resin beads. Chloride can be easily removed and used for the application of industrial wastewater or irrigation. A benefit to this system is that it does not require frequent backwashing cycles.
- Containerized Double Pass SWRO 16,000 GPD - Bahamas
- Containerized Double Pass Seawater Reverse Osmosis Unit 12,000 GPD - Chile
- Skid Mounted RO System 3,000 GPD - Jamaica
Applying one of these solutions poses multiple benefits and as well as tackling the issues that needed to be addressed.
- Prevent potential health risks: Hypertension, kidney disease, etc.
- Save on equipment replacement costs: Minimize corrosion with the removal of chloride
- Increase plant growth: Chloride free irrigation and agricultural water will enable optimal growth production for plants and food products rather than being stunted by chloride.
- Drinking water
- Industrial waste water
- Process water
- Agriculture [/custom-usage]