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Reverse Osmosis Articles

Ultrafiltration (UF) Systems for removal of bacteria and viruses
Pure Aqua, Inc. manufactures a full line of Ultrafiltration (UF) systems. UF is a pressure driven membrane separation process that removes suspended or particulate matter (including colloids & silt) from water. The solution is far more reliable than a conventional multimedia filter that removes approximately 10-20+ micron or larger matter where a UF membrane pore size ranges from 0.01 to 0.10 micron. In addition to superior turbidity removal, UF membranes efficiently remove bacteria and most ....more->

The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) for sewage treatment
The Membrane BioReactor (MBR) is a state of the art pre-engineered sewage treatment system utilizing Pure Aqua’s water treatment expertise with Toray’s submerged membrane technology. The membrane separation process eliminates the conventional sedimentation tank and allows high volumetric loading (high MLSS), resulting in a smaller footprint. The MBR can produce high quality effluent with high BOD5 removal (about 98%), complete nitrification and partial de-nitrification and achieves v ....more->

Removal of Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
TOC stands for Total Organic Carbon - it includes all organics that contain carbon except for CO2, bicarbonate and carbonate. TOC is common on the NE coast of America where vegetative matter leaches tannins into the water giving it a tea like color. The naturally occurring TOC is typically negative charged colloids or suspended water. Ideally, RO feed water would have less than 3 ppm of TOC. Anthropogenic (man-made) sources of TOC can contribute significantly higher levels.  ....more->

Nanofiltration for hardness reduction
Nanofiltration is essentially identical to Reverse Osmosis, however rejection is in the approximate range of 1 nanometer, hence the name 'Nanofiltration'. A general rule of thumb to remember the relative size and rejection of different membranes and technology is to start with RO and multiply by 10; RO is in the range of 0.001 microns (1 micron = 1/1000 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm), Nano, 0.01, UF, 0.1 and MF, 1 micron. Nano membranes will remove some soluble salt and metal ions and larger orga ....more->