Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is a land-locked nation of 28 million people in central Asia north of Turkmenistan and south of Kazakhstan. Officially it is the Republic of Uzbekistan.
More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities
Its major environmental issues include:
• Shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts
• These substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification
• Water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders
• Increasing soil salination
• Soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Total Renewable Water Resources: 72.2 cu km (2003)
Freshwater Withdrawal: 58.34 cu km/yr (5% domestic, 2% industrial, 93% agricultural)
Access to improved Drinking Water: 87% of population
River Basins and Surface Water Resources
Two river basins are found in Uzbekistan. These basins form the Aral Sea basin:
•The Amu Darya basin in the south, covering 86.5% of Uzbekistan. The main Amu Darya River can be divided into three reaches: the upper reach bordering Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and where most of the water flow is generated; the middle reach which first borders Uzbekistan and Afghanistan and then enters Turkmenistan; and the lower reach in Uzbekistan, before it discharges into the Aral Sea. The main tributaries within Uzbekistan are the Sherabad, Kashkadarya, Surkhandarya and Zeravshan rivers. These last two rise in Tajikistan. The total amount of flow produced in the Amu Darya basin is estimated at 78.46 cubic kilometers per year (km3/year); the 5% and 95% probabilities are estimated at 108.4 and 46.9 km3/year respectively. Because of important losses in the desertic part of its course, and because of major water withdrawal by agriculture, the flow reaching the Aral Sea is limited to a small percentage of this figure (less than 10% in the driest years). About 4.7 km3/year, or 6% of the average total surface water resources of the Amu Darya River basin, are generated within Uzbekistan.
•The Syr Darya basin in the north, covering 13.5% of the territory. The main Syr Darya River can be divided into three reaches: the upper reach in the Kyrgyz Republic, where most of the water flow is generated; the middle reach in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan; and the lower reach in Kazakhstan, before it discharges into the Aral Sea. The main tributaries within Uzbekistan are the Chirchik and Akhangaran rivers, which rise in the Kyrgyz Republic. The total amount of flow produced in the Syr Darya basin is estimated at 37.14 km3/year; the 5% and 95% probabilities are estimated at 54.1 and 21.4 km3/year respectively. Because of important losses in the desertic part of its course, and because of major water withdrawal by agriculture, the flow reaching the Aral Sea is limited to a small percentage of this figure (less than 5% in the driest years). About 4.84 km3/ year, or 13% of the average surface water resources of the Syr Darya river basin, are generated within Uzbekistan.
During the Soviet period, the sharing of water resources among the five Central Asian republics was on the basis of the master plans for water resources development in the Amu Darya (1987) and Syr Darya (1984) basins. In 1992, with the establishment of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination, the newly independent republics decided, with the Agreement of February 18, 1992, to prepare a regional water strategy, but to continue to respect the existing principles until the adoption of a new water sharing agreement to be proposed by this new water strategy.
The surface water resources allocated to Uzbekistan are calculated every year, depending on the climatic situation and the existing flows. However, on average, it can be considered that the estimated average surface runoff that comes from the upstream countries is:
•22.33 km3/year for the Syr Darya River basin at the border between the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan, of which 11.8 km3/year is transit flow to Tajikistan
•11.54 km3/year for the Syr Darya River basin at the border between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, of which 10 km3/year is transit flow to Kazakhstan
•22 km3/year for the Amu Darya River basin.
There are 94 major aquifers in Uzbekistan. The renewable groundwater resources are estimated at 19.68 km3/year, of which 12.88 km3/year are considered to be overlap with surface resources. The actual renewable water resources (ARWR) can thus be estimated at 50.41 km3/year.
Limits to groundwater abstraction for each aquifer in Central Asia have been established. It is permitted to use only such a quantity of groundwater that does not cause surface flow reduction. This quantity is estimated at 6.8 km3/year for Uzbekistan. However, the actual groundwater abstraction is estimated at 7.5 km3/year, which thus leads to surface flow reduction.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Uzbekistan's water resources.
Uzbekistan's main water resources are:
- Surface water “is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Uzbekistan: