Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Ukraine
Ukraine is a nation of forty five million people in eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
Its major environmental issues include:
• Inadequate supplies of potable water
• Air and water pollution
• Radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl' Nuclear Power Plant
Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe.
Total Renewable Water Resources: 139.5 cu km (1997)
Freshwater Withdrawal: 37.53 cu km/yr (12% domestic, 35% industrial, 52% agricultural)
Per Capita Freshwater Withdrawal: 807 cu m/yr (2000)
River Basins and Water Resources
The country can be divided into seven major river basins, all of them discharging into the Black Sea except the Northern Bug which flows towards the Baltic Sea:
•The Dnepr basin, covering about 65% of the country. The Dnepr River rises in the Russian Federation, then flows into Belarus before entering Ukraine. Its main effluents in Ukraine are: on the left bank, the Desna River, which rises in the Russian Federation; and on its right bank, the Pripyat River, which comes from Belarus and the Ingulets.
•The Dnestr basin, covering 12% of the country. It flows into Moldova before re-entering Ukraine some 50 km before its mouth in the Black Sea.
•The Danube basin, covering 7% of the country. The final 120 km of the Danube River before it reaches the Black Sea form the border between Ukraine and Romania. The Danube is the river with the largest number of riparian countries in the world. Some effluents of the Danube rise in Ukraine, in the Carpathian mountains, flow into neighboring countries, and join the mainstream of the Danube before its mouth in the Black Sea. In particular, the Cisa River flows out of Ukraine into Hungary, while the Prut River flows into Romania and Moldova. Ukraine contributes 7.5% to the total flow of the Danube.
•The coastal basin, covering 7% of the country. It groups all the small rivers which flow directly into the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, including all the Crimean rivers.
•The Northern Donietsk basin, covering 4% of the country. It rises in the Russian Federation, and flows through Ukraine for about 450 km in its eastern part before re-entering the Russian Federation.
•The Southern Bug basin, covering 3% of the country. It is an internal river basin, generating about 3.4 cubic kilometers per year (km3/year).
•The Northern Bug basin, covering 2% of the country. The Northern Bug River rises in Ukraine and flows north, forming the border with Poland, and then the border between Poland and Belarus. Like the Northern Bug, the San River rises in Ukraine before entering Poland where it joins the Northern Bug.
The internal renewable surface water resources (IRSWR) can be estimated at 50.1 km3/year, while the total surface water resources can be estimated at 136.55 km3/year.
The groundwater resources are estimated at 20 km3/year. Artesian wells are found at an average depth of 100-150m in the north of the country and at 500-600m in the south. The overlap between surface and groundwater resources has been estimated at 17 km3/year.
Lakes and Dams
There are about 3,000 natural lakes in Ukraine, with a total area of 2,000 km2. The largest freshwater lakes have an approximate area of 50 km2 and are located in the central and southern parts of the country. In addition to these lakes, there are about 12,000 km2 of swamp (peat soils) in the north.
About 22,000 dams have been constructed in Ukraine for flow regulation, hydropower, irrigation, and fishery purposes. The largest ones, with a total capacity of 18.5 km3 and a total surface water area of 6,888 km2, are located on the Dnepr: the Krementshutskie (2,252 km2), the Kachowskie (2,155 km2), the Kiivskie (922 km2), the Dnieprodierzhinskie (567 km2), the Zaporoskie (410 km2), and the Kaniowskie (582 km2). They are used for hydropower production, for supplying electricity to the main cities and industrial centers; for flood protection; and for storing irrigation water. The gross theoretical hydropower potential is estimated at 45,000 gigawatt hours per year (GWh/year), about 40% of which would be economically feasible. The hydropower installed capacity is estimated at 4.5 gigawatts (GW), generating 9% of the total electricity production.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Ukraine's water resources.
Ukraine's main water resources are:
Surface water “is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, , Brackish Water RO.
Media Water FiltersDesalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Ukraine: