Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Thailand
Thailand (previously Siam) is a nation of sixty seven million people in southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma (Myanmar), north of Malaysia, and west of Laos and Cambodia.
The central third of Thailand is within the watershed of the Chao Phray River which passes through the capital Bangkok to the Gulf of Thailand.
Bangkok (Krung Thep), with seven million people is the country's largest city and the center of a much larger metropolitan population.
Thailand's major environmental issues include:
• Air pollution from vehicle emissions
• Water pollution from organic and factory wastes
• Soil erosion
• Wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting
Thailand is susceptible to land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; and, droughts.
Total Renewable Water Resources: 409.9 cu km (1999)
Total: 82.75 cu km/yr (2% domestic, 2% industrial, 95% agricultural)
per capita: 1,288 cu m/yr (2000)
Lakes and Dams
The total dam capacity is estimated at 85 km3, which is about 43 percent of the annual runoff. However, a lot of dams have been overdesigned compared with the annual recharge obtainable. There are four categories of dams in Thailand:
• Large dams with a hydropower component are built by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the Royal Irrigation Department (RID), or the Department of Energy Development and Promotion and managed by the EGAT. Their total capacity is estimated at 53.46 km3. Hydropower generation is important in Thailand as its 21 hydropower plants account for 18 percent of installed capacity and 5 percent of energy production. However, all these dams are multipurpose dams, and the irrigation component receives priority over the other components.
• Large dams, with no hydropower component, and therefore mainly destined for irrigation, are operated by the RID. Their total capacity was estimated at 31.4 km3 in 1995.
• Small dams, which cost about US$200,000, are developed by the Office of Accelerated Rural Development under the Ministry of Interior for irrigation, livestock, and domestic purposes.
• Small dams of around 100,000 m3 each, developed by the Land Development Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. They cost about US$120,000 each and are used for agricultural and domestic purposes. Their total capacity is estimated at 0.1 km3. Each year, about 200 such dams are constructed or rehabilitated.
Wastewater treatment is not common. Industrial wastewater is generally discharged into rivers and canals. About 833 million m3 of wastewater were produced in 1992. In 1995, some 35 million m3 of wastewater were treated. Numerous wastewater treatment projects are being developed in the Bangkok metropolitan area. There is no reuse of treated wastewater in Thailand.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Thailand's water resources.
Thailand's main water resources are:
Surface water “is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Thailand: