Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka is a tropical island lying close to the southeast tip of the Indian subcontinent. Its land area is 64,630 km2. Three-quarters of the land consist of a broad first peneplain of an average elevation of 75 meters (m) above sea level. A second peneplain rises to 500 m, and towards the south, a third peneplain rises steeply to form a mountain massif that reaches an elevation of 2,500 m. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into nine provinces.
River Basins and Water Resources
Sri Lanka's radial network of rivers begins in the central highlands. There are about 103 distinct river basins covering 90 percent of the island. The southwest quarter of the island has seven major basins with catchment areas ranging from 620 to 2,700 square kilometers (km2). They are: Kelani ganga (2,292 km2), Kalu ganga (2,719 km2), Maha oya (1,528 km2), Attanagalla oya (736 km2), Gin ganga (932 km2), Nilwala ganga (971 km2), and Bentota ganga (629 km2). An exception to the above radial pattern is the largest basin, that of the 335-km-long Mahaweli River which has a catchment area of 10,448 km2. After leaving the central highlands, it runs almost north for 90 kilometers (km) from Minipe to Manampitiya and a then further 70 km through several distributaries as far as Verugal and Mutur on the east coast. Most Sri Lankan river basins are small. Only 17 of the 103 basins exceed 1,000 km2. In addition to the Mahaweli basin, four others exceed 2,500 km2. Three of these (Deduru oya, Kala oya, and Malwatu oya) have their entire catchment are in the dry zone, and only Kalu ganga is in the wet zone. The total runoff in Sri Lanka is estimated at 49.2 cubic kilometers (km3/year).
Groundwater resources have been extensively used since ancient times for domestic purposes using shallow open wells in almost all parts of the country. Sri Lanka's largest aquifer extends over 200 km in the northwestern and northern coastal areas. There are about 15,000 tube-wells in the country. The quality of the groundwater is generally fairly good and relatively constant throughout the year. However, in some parts of the country (northern and northwestern coastal areas) excessive concentrations of iron and nitrates (due to agrochemicals and fertilizers) have been reported. Furthermore, due to uncontrolled abstraction of groundwater for domestic and agricultural uses, brackish water intrusion has occurred in the coastal areas. In 1985, the internal renewable groundwater resources were estimated at 7.8 km3, most (estimated at 7 km3/year) returning to the river systems and being included in the surface water resources estimate. In 1991, the total internal renewable water resources of the country were estimated at 50 km3/year.
Groundwater is an important source of water for irrigation and domestic use. It is increasingly used as drinking water, especially in small towns and rural areas. The total water demand for 2000 is estimated to be 10.92 km3. Of this total, 90 percent will be for agriculture, 7 percent for domestic purposes and 3 percent for industrial purposes.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Sri Lanka's water resources.
Sri Lanka's main water resources are:
Surface water “is water from river, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Sri Lanka: