Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Kuwait
Kuwait is a nation in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia. About a half of its population of 2.6 million people is composed of non-nationals.
Its major environmental issues include:
• Limited natural freshwater resources - some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination facilities provide much of the water;
• Air and water pollution;
Total Renewable Water Resources: 0.02 cu km (1997)
Freshwater Withdrawal: 0.44 cu km/yr (45% domestic, 2% industrial, 52% agricultural)
Per Capita Freshwater Withdrawal: 164 cu m/yr (2000)
Surface Water Resources
There are no permanent surface water flows. Rainwater accumulates in the natural depressions where water remains for several weeks. Only a small part of this water percolates into the ground because of the high evaporation and the presence of an impervious layer in some regions.
There are two major aquifers: the Kuwait group (upper layer) and the Damman group (lower layer). Groundwater inflow has been estimated at about 20 million m3/year through lateral underflow from Saudi Arabia.
There are three classes of groundwater: fresh water with salinity below 1,000 parts per million (ppm) which is used for drinking and domestic purposes, slightly saline water with salinity ranging between 1,000 and 10,000 ppm which is used for irrigation, and highly saline water with salinity exceeding 10,000 ppm which is used in special cases only. In general groundwater quality and quantity are deteriorating due to the continuous pumping of water. In Al-Wafra in the south, 50% of the wells pumped water with a salinity level higher than 7,500 ppm in 1989. This figure is expected to reach 7,580% and 85-90% in the years 1997 and 2002 respectively. In Al-Abdally in the north, 55% of the deep drilled wells pumped water with a salinity level higher than 7,500 ppm in 1989. This is expected to reach 75 and 90% after 5 and 10 years of operation respectively.
Desalinated Water and Treated Wastewater in Kuwait
Kuwait relies on water desalination as a primary source of fresh water for drinking and domestic purposes. The first desalination plant was established in 1953 with a total capacity of 4,545 m3/day. In 1994 there were 6 desalination plants with a maximum capacity of 950,000 m3/day. The quantity of desalinated water produced in 1993 was 231 million m3. Fresh water is obtained by mixing distilled water with low salinity groundwater (with a proportion of 8% groundwater) in order to get water suitable for drinking according to the official standards.
The quantity of wastewater produced was 119 million m3 in 1994. About 103 million m3 was treated and of this 52 million m3 has been reused, while the remaining part was directed to the sea.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Kuwait's water resources.
Kuwait's main water resources are:
- Surface water “is water from river, rain water, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
- Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
- Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
- Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Kuwait: