Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Egypt
Egypt is a nation of eighty-four million people in north-Africa, it also controls the Sinai Peninsula, part of the Middle East and western-Asia. Thus, Egypt controls the only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere. It also controls the Suez Canal, a sea link between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Egypt's major environmental issues include:
• Agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands;
• Increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam;
• Desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats;
• Other water pollution from agricultural pesticides and herbicides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents;
• Limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; and,
• Rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources.
Egypt is susceptible to periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, and sandstorms.
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 BC, and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia.
Ecology and Biodiversity
1. Nile Delta flooded savanna (aqua)
2. Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe (coast strip west of Nile delta)
3. North Saharan steppe and woodlands
4. Saharan halophytics (purple - Qattara Depression )
5. Sahara desert
6. Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands (southwest corner at border with Libya and Sudan)
7. South Saharan steppe and woodlands (southeast - cream)
8. Red Sea coastal desert (west coast of Red Sea)
9. Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands (most of Sinai peninsula)
10. Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert (southern Sinai coast)
Water and Agriculture
Approximately one-third of Egyptian labor is engaged directly in farming, and many others work in the processing or trading of agricultural products. Nearly all of Egypt's agricultural production takes place in some 2.5 million hectares (6 million acres) of fertile soil in the Nile Valley and Delta. Some desert lands are being developed for agriculture, including the ambitious Toshka project in Upper Egypt, but some other fertile lands in the Nile Valley and Delta are being lost to urbanization and erosion.
Warm weather and plentiful water permit several crops a year in the Nile Valley. Further improvement is possible, but land is worked intensively and yields are high. Cotton, rice, wheat, corn, sugarcane, sugar beets, onions, and beans are the principal crops. Increasingly, a few modern operations are producing fruits, vegetables and flowers, in addition to cotton, for export. While the desert hosts some large, modern farms, more common traditional farms occupy one acre each, typically in a canal-irrigated area along the banks of the Nile. Many small farmers also have cows, water buffaloes, and chickens, although larger modern farms are becoming more important.
Total renewable water resources (1997): 86.8 cu km
Freshwater withdrawal: total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8% domestic, 6% industrial, 86% agricultural) (2000).
Per capita Freshwater withdrawal: 923 cu m/yr
Agricultural products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Irrigated land (2003): 34,220 sq km
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Egypt’s water resources.
Egypt’s main water resources are:
- Surface water “is water from river, rain water, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
- Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
- Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
- Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Egypt: