Reverse Osmosis & Water Treatment in Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda is a nation of eighty-nine thousand people composed of two major islands (Antigua and Barbuda named after the Spanish words for ancient and bearded respectively), along with a number of much smaller islands in the Caribbean Sea.
Antigua and Barbuda is part of the island group referred to as the Lesser Antilles and part of the region known as the Caribbean or the West Indies.
The twin island state of Antigua and Barbuda (17°03' North, 61°48 West) is situated in the northeastern part of the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles. The islands are located between 17° 00' and 17° 35' N latitude and between 61° 40' and 61° 55' W longitude. Total land area is 440 km2, Antigua being the larger island with an area of 280 km2 and Barbuda having an area of 160 km2. Approximately 31% of the total land area (13,810 ha) is considered cultivable. Within this area, some 2,000 farmers are engaged in production on 1,863 ha. Eighty-seven percent of the cultivated area (1,618 ha) is under annual crops while the remaining 13% is under permanent crops.
The total average rainfall for both islands is estimated at 453 million m3/year and internal renewable water resources (IRWR) about 52 million m3/year. There are no perennial water sources in the country. At present the country's agricultural and municipal (domestic and commercial) water demands are being met by two desalination plants (total capacity 3.3 million m3/year); three surface dams, numerous small ponds and 5 well fields (total capacity 2.8 million of m3/year). Individual residences have cisterns which provide part or all of the household water needs. The amount of water collected through this method is not known.
Water for Barbuda is supplied from a single well that serves Codington where most of the population lives. The ground waters are generally saline with the notable exception of Palmetto Sands, a 600 ha area of beach sands on the southwestern shore.
Lakes and dams
Total dam capacity in Antigua was about 7 million m3 in 1992. It is estimated that there are over 500 ponds, each with capacity less than 1,000 m3. The small ponds are used primarily for agriculture and many of the reservoirs are used for both agricultural and municipal uses. During drier months irrigation is restricted to a very limited surface due to shortfall in surface and groundwater yields, and most surface water storage is diverted to municipal supply. On the other hand, Barbuda's topography and geology are not well suited to dam construction.
Annual water withdrawal in 1990 was about 5 million m3, of which the domestic sector accounts for 60%, while agriculture and industry account for 20% each.
The entire population, both rural and urban, has access to potable water. Most of the municipal water is treated at three main treatment plants.
The World Bank reports that at least 80 countries have water shortages and 2 billion people lack access to clean water. More disturbingly, the World Health Organization has reported that 1 billion people lack enough water to simply meet their basic needs, unfortunately in many countries water is scarce or contaminated.
Pure Aqua provides wide range of filtration and economical solutions based on the Antigua & Barbuda’s water resources.
Antigua & Barbuda’s main water resources are:
- Surface water “is water from river, rain water, lake or fresh water wetland, which can be treated using different methods, such as Ultrafiltration Systems, Media Water Filters, Brackish Water RO.
- Desalination can be used for water from ocean, or sea source, which can be treated using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Systems; Desalination Systems
- Ground Water or brackish water is from water located in the pore space of soil and rock “Borehole well”, which can be treated using Reverse Osmosis Systems, Media Water Filters, Chemical Dosing, UV Sterilizers.
- Government water supply, which could have high level of hardness or high level of chlorine, can be treated with Water Softeners, Media Water Filters
Pure Aqua manufactures water treatment systems that meet the World Health Organization requirements.
Completed Water Purification Projects for Antigua and Barbuda: