RO works through a complex system of engineered components:
A) Raw Water Storage Tank
Although some systems can draw water right out of a well or pipe feed, most start with a large tank that stores the contaminated water. Not having enough feed water can damage a pump, so having a large storage tank for your intake water is an easy way to make sure your pump lasts for as long as possible.
B) Feed Water Pump
A commercial or industrial strength pump provides the initial pressure for the RO system. This motor usually provides enough water pressure to get through any pretreatment as well as the membranes, but if it doesn't, a booster pump may be necessary further down the line.
C) Multi-Layer Filter
Things like foul odor and taste usually aren't prevented by reverse osmosis. A Multi-Layer filter can be filled with media that specifically targets the things your system can't catch. If you need to eliminate these contaminants, a Multi-Layer Filter is a must.
D) Chemical Dosing System
Strong acids and bases can reduce the effectiveness of the membrane elements of a system, or in some circumstances destroy them entirely. New chemicals may need to be introduced to your intake water to nullify these hazardous chemicals and preserve the life of your membrane elements. Chemical dosing is also an effective cleaning tool for an RO system, dramatically increasing the lifespan of membrane elements.
E) Reverse Osmosis System
This is the membrane system itself or the heart of the purification process. It can produce up to one million gallons of product water a day from a steady intake.
F) Product Water Storage Tank
The permeate pure water output will usually go to a large tank, where it is held for use. Sometimes, a Reverse Osmosis System pumps water directly into a well or aquifer for recharging instead of being used or reserved right away.